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About Enduring Conviction

Enduring Conviction tells the story of Fred Korematsu, a 22-year-old welder in Oakland, California, who challenged military orders culminating in the incarceration of over 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II. In 1944, the Supreme Court, in one of its most infamous decisions, affirmed his conviction, accepting the government’s claim that its actions were justified by military necessity.

Lorraine Bannai, the author of Enduring Conviction, is Director of the Fred T. Korematsu Center for Law and Equality and a Professor of Lawyering Skills at Seattle University School of Law. After earning her J.D. from the University of San Francisco School of Law, Professor Bannai practiced with what is now the San Francisco firm of Minami Tamaki. While in practice, she was on the legal team that successfully challenged Fred Korematsu’s conviction for violating military orders removing Japanese Americans from the West Coast during World War II. She has written and spoken widely on the issue of the wartime incarceration. In February 2012, she testified before U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, raising the example of the incarceration in opposing provisions of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) that permit the indefinite detention of individuals without due process. She also co-authored an amicus brief on behalf of the children of Fred Korematsu, Gordon Hirabayashi, and Minoru Yasui in Hedges v. Obama, a case challenging those same provisions. Her biography of Fred Korematsu, Enduring Conviction: Fred Korematsu and His Quest for Justice, was recently published by the University of Washington Press.

If you do not wish to donate online, please make your check payable to

The Fred T. Korematsu Institute
Presidio of San Francisco, P.O. Box 29527
San Francisco, CA 94129


About The Fred T. Korematsu Institute

The Fred T. Korematsu Institute educates about the importance of remembering the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II with the goal of moving towards racial equality.  

The Fred T. Korematsu Institute is a fiscally sponsored project of Community Initiatives. Since 1996, Community Initiatives has worked with individuals and groups to incubate new nonprofit ideas through fiscal sponsorship. This allows community-benefit projects a way to test and refine their ideas without having to incorporate and obtain tax-exempt status on their own.

For more information please contact Freda Lin at or visit our website at

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